Liberty, security, prosperity.
Constitution of Québec
We, the people of Quebec, to preserve the privileges of liberty, security and prosperity which we enjoy, establish the present Constitution.
Everyone has the right to freedom and this freedom cannot be impaired otherwise than to ensure the necessary security to enjoy this freedom.
Quebec’s official language is french.
The Government of Quebec is divided in three mutually exclusive branches, which are the Executive, the Legislative and the Judiciary.
Legislative power is held jointly by the national Assembly and the Senate.
The national Assembly is composed of Representatives elected every two years by the electors of their respective electoral divisions.
Quebec is divided in seventy-five electoral divisions.
Representatives at the national Assembly may serve for a maximum of four terms.
The national Assembly chooses its president and establishes its procedure rules. It hold the power of Impeachement for misconduct and the power of taxation and appropriations.
The Senate is composed of Senators elected every four years by electors of their respective regions.
Quebec is divided in seventeen senatorial regions.
Senators may serve for a maximum of two terms.
The Senate chooses its president and establishes its procedure rules. It hears Impeachement for misconduct procedures set forth by the national Assembly and the Senators must be sworn under oath to this end.
When Impeacheament for misconduct procedures concern the Governor, they are exceptionnaly presided by Quebec’s Chief Justice.
A same person cannot be at the same time Representative and Senator.
Impeachement for misconduct requires a majority of two thirds of the voices. It will result in retirement from functions and disqualification for any charge of function in public office of the impeached elect.
A bill proposal can be presented by an elect of either chamber et must be adopted by a majority vote from both. Amendements can be proposed in either chamber and if the amendement is accepted by the second chamber, the amended proposal must be submitted again to a new vote by the chamber which presented the initial proposal.
When a bill proposal receives the consent of both chambers, it is submitted to the Governor for signature. He can then sign and give it force of Law or he can object to it, with or without motives, and return it to the chamber which presented the initial proposal. The proposal can then be amended and submitted to normal vote or can be resubmitted to vote requiring two thirds approval from both chambers to have force of Law nonwithstanding the Governor’s objection.
Executive power is held by a Governor elected every four years by the whole electorate. The Lieutenant-Governor is elected on the same ticket as the Governor and for the same term. The Governor is Commander-in-chief of the Militia.
The Attorney General for Quebec is elected every four years by the whole electorate. He is an independant member of the Executive and serves the Constitution, the People of Quebec and the Government, in that order. He is in charge of the Ministry of Justice.
All the other Ministers are appointed by the Governor for a term of four years and cannot cumulate any other public function or charge. The nominations must be approved by two thirds of the Senate.
The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Attorney General and all the other ministers are susceptible to be the object of Destitution fo misconduct procedures. These functions can be held for a maximum of two terms.
The Governor has the power to pardon any criminal offense other than treason and Destitution.
If the Governor is incapacitated or destituted, the Lieutenant-Governor will take over his functions for the remainder of the term.
Judiciary power is vested in the superior Courts in first instance and in Quebec’s Court of appeal in second instance. Legislature may also instigate any inferior instance at its discretion.
The Justices are appointed by the Governor and the Senate must approve the nomination by two thirds. The function is permanent under condition of good conduct.
The right to trial before jury is inalienable. However, it is possible to renounce it in civil and penal cases and for minor criminal infractions as dictated by Law.
The debt of Quebec may not exceed thirty-five percent of its gross domestic product. Only a national emergency may justify a temporary excess of this limit and all measures must be taken to reimburse to a level respecting that maximum threshold in the briefest delays, under penalty of Assembly dissolution. The Attorney General will be in charge of evaluating the respect of this obligation and, case pending, to apply the penalty.
Any modification to the present Constitution may be proposed in either legislative chamber and must receive approval from two thirds of both to be submitted to popular referendum. If the amendement receives approval of the simple majority of the population, it becomes integral part of the present.
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